Excavations and discoveries. – Numerous excavations promoted in the years preceding the Second World War by various foreign archaeological schools and by Greek archaeologists, and which are slowly recovering in the main centers even in the current difficult conditions, have largely expanded the historical framework of Greek civilization with the rich series of monuments brought to light.
Particularly important are the results of the discoveries and studies in the prehistoric field. In addition to the various settlements and Neolithic strata found in Halae in Boezia, in Corinth, in Asea in Arcadia, in Pherai in Thessaly, on the shores of the lake in Kastoria in Macedonia, in Olinto, under the temple of Apollo or Aphrodite in Aegina, and in the islands such as Ithaca, Lemnos, where a fortified settlement has come to light in Poliochni, and in Lesbos, the documents of the Bronze and Early Iron Age are interesting. Thus today we can follow through many new archaeological documents the flourishing of the Helladic civilization and the irradiation of the Minoan civilization on the continent, which determines at the end of the Middle Helladic the Mycenaean culture of which we witness in many places the various stages of development up to the extreme decadence. See also Crete-Mycenaean, civilization, in this App.
Particularly significant are the excavations of Perachora, of the city and of the necropolis of Asine from the primitive Helladic to the Roman age, those of Berbati, of the Heraion of Argo, where there is an Helladic settlement on the acropolis and a necropolis, of the Mycenaean of Argos, of the Mycenaean palace on Cadmeia in Thebes, of Delphi where under the NE corner. of temenos the remains of a Mycenaean and geometric settlement were found and it turned out to be a Mycenaean cult at Marmaria, while in the plain below at Kirra a settlement and Helladic tombs and a settlement from the Middle Helladic to the Mycenaean under the Byzantine village of the nearby Krisa; Mycenaean tombs have been excavated in Marathon and Thermopylae and an inhabited area from the early Helladic to the late Helladic period with fortified walls has been identified at Hagios Kosmas in S. del Falero. Even in the islands Mycenaean finds have multiplied: a settlement on the Oros in Aegina, tombs in Kefalonia, inhabited in various points of Ithaca, in Delos where seven tombs and an important deposit of gold and ivory have been found.
The passage from the Mycenaean world to the geometric civilization is documented by many excavations that show both the rapid and vigorous affirmation of this in some centers, and more precisely in those where Greek culture will flourish more intensely, especially in Attica, and also the various delay of elements of the Helladic and Mycenaean heritage in other centers, especially peripheral ones, also giving rise to particular local cultures, such as that revealed by the recent Italian excavations of Hephaestia in Lemnos.
The geometric civilization has been enriched with new documents with the excavations of the geometric tombs of Trachones al Falero, of the necropolis of Marathon, of Delphi, where a whole geometric deposit has come to light, of the necropolis of Karditza in Boeotia, of the acropolis of Kalamitza in Macedonia, of the tholos tombs of Marmariane in Macedonia from the submiceneo to the protogeometric, of a protogeometric necropolis in Sciroe in Crete with the excavations of Anavlochos, an inhabited area which arose in the postmycenae perhaps after the decline of the Minoan center of Mallia, of the necropolis of Arcades from the geometric to the orientalizing and above all of the center of Dreros, where an archaic temple with eschara and bench with the three known sphyrelata was found, and of the sanctuary, the inhabited area and the necropolis of Karphi from the submiceneo to the protogeometric.
For the archaic period, in addition to those places already mentioned where there is a succession from the Mycenaean or from the protogeometric up to the classical age, the necropolis of the seventh century is to be remembered. del Falero, the town and the temple of the VII-V century. in Vari, where tombs grouped in two great tumults have also been excavated and an important series of proto-attic vases have been found. A temple of the seventh century. it was excavated on the western acropolis of Megara, in addition to the inhabited area which lasted from the proto-Helladic to the Byzantine age, and an archaic place of worship is documented at the Heraion of Argos.
Traces of an archaic temple, to which a Doric in antis is superimposed, have come to light with statuettes of kouroi in Hagios Floros in Laconia and another archaic temple in Barbes in Achaia and in Zugra (Pellene). The Italian excavations have brought to light three small archaic temples with wooden columns at Pallantion in Arcadia together with another Doric temple with wooden columns. A building that from the sixth century. it lasts up to Hellenism, with a votive deposit including a model of a house, it was excavated in Vaieni in Trifilia and in the sixth century. dates back to the Greek city that is planted above the Helladic layer at Kirra d ovea temple of Apollo, Artemis and Latona was found; in the sixth century. there is also the Greek city excavated at Eutresis in Boeotia, and the necropolis of Nalae begins which reaches up to the Roman age. A small sanctuary of the hero Ptoios from the 6th to the 4th century. came to light in Kastraki where the temple was excavated, with a paved street lined with tripod bases.
Architectural elements of an archaic temple have been excavated in Itea in Euboea and in Crete we see a Greek temple rising on a Minoan building in Amnisos. A necropolis from the 6th century has come to light in Chios. and at Kato Phana a temple of Apollo Phanaios with finds starting from the geometric. In Ikaria a temple of Artemis Tauropolos from the end of the 7th or early 6th century has been excavated, and in Naxos a necropolis from the geometric to the 6th century. VII.
No less important and numerous are the results of the archaeological activity for the classical period in all areas of Greece; they bring new contributions to architecture, topography, religion, art. Among the many we remember are the excavations in Attica: the sanctuary of Aphrodite and the cave of Pan on the Via Sacra di Eleusi in Daphní; in Eleusis itself of a sacred building, in front of the south door of the sanctuary, which dates back to the century. VIII a. C., and a large archaic apsidal construction, perhaps intended for worship, in front of the great propylaea, as well as excavations in the Telesterion; of two small buildings on the Hymptus, of which perhaps one is the sanctuary of Zeus Ombrios; of the shrine of Artemide Munichia in Munichia; of temenos of Heracles in Marathon; the remains of a temple of Dionysus at Panakton; of the fortified walls of the acropolis at Falero; of the sanctuary of Demeter (perhaps the Thesmophorion of Halimus) between Trachones and H. Kosmas at Falero himself; of the piers and fortifications at Cape Sounion; of the sanctuary of Apollo Zoster in Vuliagmeni.