Territorial variations. – On June 27, 1946, the Italian islands of the Aegean were assigned to Greece; the decision became enforceable on September 15, 1947. The islands were incorporated into the kingdom on March 7, 1948, and divided into four provinces: Rhodes, Calino, Karpathos and Kos.
Population. – A census held in 1940 found, on 132,562 sq km. of the Greek territory (of which 107,840 mainland, and the rest, that is 17.6%, islands), 7,335,675 residents (56 per sq. Km.). A more recent estimate (December 1946) gave 7,450,000 residents
There are then more analytical data, relative to 1947, for the islands that had belonged to Italy: 115,930 residents lived there, divided as follows: Rhodes, 55,180; Casts, 765; Calino, 12,818; Case, 1325; Castelrosso, 663; Kos, 18,482; Lero, 6182; Lipsous, 865; Nisiro, 2500; Patmo, 2724; Piscopi, 1089; Karpathos, 7422; Simi, 4094; Stampalia, 1821.
According to official data (not entirely reliable) we would have: 95% Greeks; 1.6% Turks; 1.3% Bulgarians and 0.5% Armenians, as well as 100,000 Jews, 75,000 foreigners and 25,000 Albanians. The number of the latter, however, fluctuates, according to others, between 140 and 215,000, while the percentage of Greeks would be reduced to 87.1%. Greeks living abroad exceed two million, of which 500,000 in the United States, 290,000 in Cyprus, 200,000 in the USSR, 170,000 in Constantinople and 125,000 in Egypt.
Only two inhabited centers exceed 100,000 residents: Thessaloniki (268,140 residents in 1940) and Piraeus (287,000): the latter, with various satellite centers, is in fact seamless topographical continuity with Athens (see) whose population now exceeds one million residents Only two other cities have more than 50,000 residents: Patras (73,840 residents in 1940) and Volo (51,000).
Economic conditions. – Even in Greece, the post-war period marks a contraction of cultivated areas and related products (wheat has however increased the unit yield):
In 1940, 48.9 tons were collected. of tobacco (2.8% of world production), which contributed about half, in value (45%), to the export from Greece. After a strong inflection in the war years (9.5 t. In 1943), the crop seems to have regained altitude. Wine production rose to 3.5 million hl in 1946. and that of raisins remained around 1.6-1.7 million q.
The zootechnical patrimony consisted in 1938 (in thousands of heads) of 8,138.8 sheep: 4,356.1 goats; 967.3 cattle; 363.1 horses; 404.4 donkeys; 183.7 mules; 429.7 pigs; figures reduced, after the war (1946), to 6000, 3130, 561, 220, 325, 130, 400 respectively.
There is no recent data for the extractive industries; for the pre-war period the production of iron ore was around 300,000 t. and that of the pyrites of just over 200,000. Of some importance magnesite (rough, about 168,000 in 1938), chromite (50,000 t.) And lignite (110,000 t. In 1938).
Communications. – In 1947, only 1141 of the 2976 km were in operation. of railways existing in 1938. In 1938 the roadways measured over 13,500 km. National air services connect Athens with Thessaloniki, Ioannina and Crete; Athens is also an important stopover for various international airlines.
Commerce. – Although without further accentuating – and indeed with a slight increase in exports in the period preceding the war – a notable imbalance between imports and exports continued.
On the eve of the Second World War, Germany occupied the first place in this exchange (23% of imports, 37 of exports), followed at a distance by the US (11% and 25% respectively) and Great Britain. Italy exported something more in value to Greece than it imported (653,000 drachmas and 582.2 respectively). In 1946 exports amounted to 201.7 million drachmas, against a more than double value for imports (435.4). But in this postwar period the United States and Great Britain absorb almost all of the maritime interchange which, in turn, represents 92% of exports and 90% of imports.
Merchant marine. – Greece possessed, on the eve of the war, ships with a tonnage of 1.9 million tons. (9th place among the world navies, after France and Holland). At least three quarters of this ship was destroyed: of the 69 passenger ships only 17 were saved, of the 488 freighters 113 remained. Overall, the merchant navy now has around 700,000 t.
Finance. – The state budget after the liberation was characterized by a situation of profound imbalance and the growing deficits contributed significantly to the development of the inflationary process.
The internal public debt, created before and during the Second World War, was canceled by the currency devaluation. In January 1946 the British government waived the repayment of the credits granted to Greece during the war, amounting to approximately 46 million pounds.
The monetary situation presented marked inflationary developments. Circulation grew rapidly during the war and in the first months after the liberation; of its amount and the extreme degree of inflation reached is indirect proof of the exchange rate of the old drachmas with the new ones (50 billion = 1) applied at the time of the monetary reform, which took place in November 1944. The new currency was hedged in initially for 100 per cent gold and foreign exchange and the Bank of Greece undertook to convert its notes into pounds on sight at the rate of 1 ??? = 600 drachmas. The exchange rate with the US dollar was fixed at 149 drachmas = 1 $ and the circulation was reduced to 10 billion, an amount corresponding approximately to the pre-war level.
However, subsequent developments in both the economic and financial fields made stabilization ineffective. By June 1945 the circulation had risen to 26 milliards and the new drachma was devalued (new exchange rate with the pound sterling at 2000 d. And with the dollar at 500). However, circulation continued to expand, exceeding 100 billion in December 1945 and the open market operations of the Bank of Greece proved ineffective in the face of the widespread phenomenon of hoarding of gold and currencies. In January 1946, a new stabilization was thus carried out in agreement with the British government, which granted a stabilization credit of 10 million pounds. The official exchange rate of the drachma was fixed at 20,000 against the pound and 5,000 against the dollar. As of August 31, 1948, circulation amounted to 1,048, 6 billion drachmas. The official exchange rate remained unchanged, however the Greek government, in agreement with the American Mission for Aid to Greece, adopted (October 1947) measures to facilitate exports and the inflow of currencies to the Issuing Bank, in particular by introducing a system of exchange certificates, so that in effect exporters benefit from a favorable exchange rate which in July 1948 was 10,019 drachmas per dollar. Greece participates in the two Bretton Woods institutes with a share of $ 40 million for each of them. inflow of currencies to the Issuing Bank, in particular by introducing a system of exchange certificates, whereby exporters actually benefit from a favorable exchange rate which in July 1948 was 10,019 drachmas per dollar. Greece participates in the two Bretton Woods institutes with a share of $ 40 million for each of them. inflow of currencies to the Issuing Bank, in particular by introducing a system of exchange certificates, whereby exporters actually benefit from a favorable exchange rate which in July 1948 was 10,019 drachmas per dollar. Greece participates in the two Bretton Woods institutes with a share of $ 40 million for each of them.