From the first major public protest (August 1987, anniversary of the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact), the strong nationalist charge acquired a growing political value, leading in a short time to the foundation of a National Front (October 1988); at the same time, the secessionist vocation was transformed from an element of support to the democratizing action of Gorbačëv an element of opposition to the unitary Soviet structure that he still proposed in the first Treaty of the Union. The declaration of sovereignty of November 1988, the abolition of the leading role of the Communist Party (January 1990), and therefore the parliamentary resolution for an imminent restoration of independence (May 1990), thus inevitably clashed with Muscovite political orientations, who disowned them. According to campingship, Latvia is a country located in Europe.
When the formation of a Russian-speaking “counter-face”, led by conservative forces and repressive military interventions (January 1991), seemed to question the developments hoped for by the local population in the referendum of 3 March, the unsuccessful and unexpected coup attempt in the USSR by the August 1991 definitively accelerated the independence project. Taking advantage of the uncertainties of the coup leaders and the vacuum of Soviet power, as well as the support of international diplomacy, the local authorities enforced the democratic sentiments of Latvian society to proclaim the definitive independence of the Republic, also ready to appoint a government in exile, as an act of clear dissociation from an authoritarian involution. The support thus provided for the restoration of Gorbachev’s legitimate power earned the newly established Federal State Council recognition of the acquisition of full sovereignty (September 6, 1991). Formal diplomatic relations were soon re-established with many countries, starting with Europe and the United States, and at the same time entry into major international organizations was required. With the other Baltic Republics, as early as May 1990, the Baltic Council, a consultative body originally established in 1934, was re-established. In June 1993, the political elections were won by Via Latone, a moderate nationalist formation, and its exponent, Valdis Birkavs, became prime minister. Guntis Ulmanis, of the Peasant Union, was elected president of the Republic: shortly after the Parliament restored the democratic constitution of 1922. In 1994 strong disagreements in the government coalition, in particular on economic policy, led to the resignation of Birkavs and his replacement by Andrejs Krastins (July), but in the same year, with the withdrawal of the Russian troops still stationed in the country, the picture of the total autonomy of Latvia was complete. In 1995, new political elections were held, characterized by a extreme fragmentation of the vote and won by the center-left Saimieks party. After the attempts to form the government by exponents of the new party coalitions formed in the Legislative Assembly (the national center-right bloc, supported by Via Latone, and the center-left national reconciliation bloc) failed, President Ulmanis entrusted the assignment to an entrepreneur without political etiquette, Andris Skele, who gained the trust in parliament from a composite coalition formed, in fact, from both main political camps. As for foreign policy, in January 1995 Latvia, whose relations with Russia were stiffening due to the discrimination imposed on the Russian-speaking minority and the request for entry into the NATO, obtained admission to the Council of Europe. In April 1996, President Guntis Ulmanis was confirmed by the head of state parliament. Latvia’s path towards NATO and towards improving relations with Russia resumed in 1998 with the approval, by referendum, of the recognition of citizenship for Russian-speaking ethnic minorities.
In the political elections, held together with the referendum, the Popolari won, the party founded by Andris Skele, who returned to assume the post of prime minister. In 1999 Vaira Vike-Freiberga (later confirmed in 2003), the first woman to head a former communist country, was elected to the presidency of the Republic, while the following year Andris Berzinš became prime minister. The legislative elections of October 2002 saw the victory of the center-right New Era party, led by the former banker Einars Repse, who assumed the post of prime minister. At the Copenhagen summit in December 2002, Latvia concluded negotiations for EU membership, sanctioned by a referendum in 2003. In February 2004, the Repse government was forced to resign due to the party’s abandonment of the coalition of the Christian Democrats; the president subsequently appointed environmentalist Indulis Emsis as prime minister. In March 2004 the country joined NATO and on 1 May the state officially entered the abandonment of the coalition by the party of the Christian Democrats; the president subsequently appointed environmentalist Indulis Emsis as prime minister. In March 2004 the country joined NATO and on 1 May the state officially entered the abandonment of the coalition by the party of the Christian Democrats; the president subsequently appointed environmentalist Indulis Emsis as prime minister. In March 2004 the country joined NATO and on 1 May the state officially entered the European Union. Also in March, Parliament voted in favor of the new coalition government. In December, Aigars Kalvitis was appointed head of the government. In the 2006 legislative elections for the renewal of the parliament, the center-right coalition won 51 of the 100 seats available. In June 2007 the parliament elected Valdis Zatlers president of the republic. In February 2009, the president appointed Valdis Dombrovskis as premier of the conservative Jaunais Laiks party, which won 63 of the 100 seats in parliament in the October 2010 general elections. In June 2011 Andris Bērziņš was elected to the presidency of the republic. In September 2011, the pro-Russian and center-left opposition party (The Center of Harmony) won the legislative elections. After the resignation of Dombrovskis in 2013, the new government was formed in January 2014 by Laimdota Straujuma, which was then confirmed in the subsequent elections in October. In 2015 Raimonds Vējonis was elected president of the republic.