Macedonia History

Macedonia History


In »Vardar Macedonia« a (socialist) Yugoslav republic with its own constitution (1945) was created in 1944–46 – based on the AVNOJ program of Jajce (1943). The republic arose from the communist partisan struggle that had been victorious since spring 1943 under the Montenegrin Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo (* 1912, † 2000) sent by Tito. The Macedonian People’s Liberation Council (ASNOM), which was formed on August 2, 1944 on the model of the AVNOJ, sought, according to its founding appeal, to create a federation of all nationalities in Macedonia (under communist leadership). With the official recognition of the Macedonians in Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian language), which had long seen themselves as part of the Bulgarian nation, the constitution of an independent nation strengthened.

As early as 1967, an autocephalous Macedonian Orthodox Church had split off from the Serbian Orthodox Church. In the course of increasing Serbian nationalism (especially a speech by S. Milošević at the mass rally on the 600th anniversary of the Battle of the Blackbird Field, June 28, 1989, in which he raised claims to “southern Serbia” [Macedonia]) Macedonia broke away from his until then a pro-Serbian course (10th party congress of the Macedonian Communist League, November 26-28, 1989). Against the background of Yugoslavia (FSRJ), which dissolved in 1989-92, there was also a renaming and formation of new parties in Macedonia from 1989 onwards. In July 1990 the Inner Macedonian Revolutionary Organization – Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO – DPMNE; German abbreviation IMRO) was re-established.

On 11./25. 11th and 9th December 1990 the first free parliamentary elections took place, from which the IMRO emerged as the strongest group, followed by the Bund der Kommunisten – Party for Democratic Reorganization (name since April 20th, 1991: Social Democratic Federation of Macedonia, abbreviation SDSM) and the (Albanian) Democratic Prosperity Party (PDP; split since February 1994). On January 27, 1991 the parliament elected K. Gligorov in the second ballot for president. On September 8, 1991 the population voted in a referendum with 74% for the state independence of Macedonia; the Albanian and the (small in number) Serb minority boycotted the election. After the declaration of independence (September 15, 1991), Macedonia constituted itself as an independent state with effect from November 19, 1991 (initially only recognized by Russia, Bulgaria, Albania and Turkey) and adopted a new one on November 20, 1991 Constitution on.

On the basis of a 10/11 1. Referendum organized in the Albanian settlement area in 1992 (with 99% approval), the Albanian minority proclaimed the “Albanian Autonomous Republic of Illyria” in their settlement area on April 5, 1992. In the parliamentary elections on 16./30. 10. In 1994 the SDSM became the strongest party, followed by the Liberal Party of Macedonia (LPM) and the PDP; the IMRO had boycotted the election. On October 16, 1994, the population re-elected Gligorovas president. On October 3, 1995, he was seriously injured in an attack by nationalist extremists.

After the elections on 18. 10./1. 11. In 1998 an alliance of IMRO and Democratic Alternative under Ljubco Georgievski (* 1966; IMRO) took over the government (Democratic Alternative left in December 1999). On December 5, 1999, in the third ballot and after the judicial partial annulment of the previous election result in the second ballot, B. Trajkovski was elected President (as a candidate of IMRO).

Foreign policy: After the application for recognition of independence under international law (December 20, 1991), this remained due to Greek objection, which increased from February 18, 1994 to the embargo, until April 8, 1993 (acceptance into the UN as FYROM – The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) or in mid-December 1993 (recognition by all EU members except Greece; recognition by the USA in February 1994) internationally failed. In December 1992 the UN Security Council gave UNPROFOR the mandate to send a contingent of around 700 to 800 (later a total of 1,000) blue helmet soldiers to Macedonia (from March 1995 to March 1999 under the name UNPREDEP). The economic and political isolation was overcome by the normalization of relations with Greece (agreement of September 13, 1995 and parliamentary resolution on the »Star of Vergina«, October 5), supported by the suspension of the UN embargo (October 1, 1995). 1996) against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Macedonia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Macedonia was the only constituent republic to be able to separate itself peacefully from, recognized each other (April 8, 1996). Tensions arose with Albania because of the Albanian minority. Which could be reduced in the following time.

Macedonia was admitted to the Council of Europe on November 9, 1995; On November 15, 1995, Macedonia joined the NATO program “Partnership for Peace”.

The international Kosovo crisis (1998/99; temporary stationing of NATO troops), especially the temporary mass influx of Kosovars (250,000; March to May 1999), increased the ethnic imbalance in Macedonia and heightened ethnic tensions (including updating the “Albanian” and the “Macedonian question”). The bilateral relationship with Bulgaria was concluded in February 1999, inter alia. relaxed by the recognition of a Macedonian nation.

In February 2000, Macedonia, as a member of the Southeast European Cooperation Process (English abbreviation SEECP; founded in 1996) with five Balkan countries and Turkey was involved in the signing of a charter for cooperation and good neighborliness in Bucharest, and in February 2001 in Skopje a charter on stability and cooperation in the Balkans region. At the first Balkan summit of the EU at the end of November 2000, Macedonia, together with other Balkan states, was granted the status of a potential candidate for accession to the EU (without a schedule); In April 2001, because of Macedonia’s key role in the region, the EU’s first Stabilization and Association Agreement with a Balkan country followed.

In February 2001, Macedonia and Yugoslavia reached an agreement on the borderline between the two countries, which had been a disputed borderline since 1991, on the sidelines of the fourth SEECP summit.

In 2001, in close cooperation with the EU and UN, Greece and Bulgaria provided Macedonia with assistance in maintaining its sovereignty and territorial integrity. On November 9, 2005, the EU Commission spoke out in favor of granting Macedonia the status of an EU candidate country. Admission to NATO is still blocked because of the name dispute with Greece. On October 17, 2009, the parliaments of Macedonia and Kosovo mutually recognized their borders. Both countries exchanged ambassadors.

In June 2018, Zaev and the Greek Prime Minister Tsipras reached an agreement to the future state name »North Macedonia« (Severna Makedonija) (so-called Prespa Agreement, according to which Macedonia is nationally and internationally referred to as North Macedonia). This agreement had to be approved by the Greek parliament and a Macedonian referendum as well as the Macedonian parliament in a three-stage process. On January 11, 2019, the Macedonian parliament approved the name change with a two-thirds majority. The vote was accompanied by changes to the constitution, such as the passage that Macedonia does not lay claim to territories in neighboring Greece. The Greek parliament ratified the agreement on January 25, 2019 with a simple majority. With effect from January 12, 2019, the Balkan country is called the »Republic of North Macedonia«. This ended a three-decade name dispute. The name change was a prerequisite for Macedonia’s accession to NATO and the EU, which Greece had blocked because of the state name. – North Macedonia is a member of the WTO (since 2003) and the Central European Free Trade Area (since 2007).

Macedonia History