Portugal History - The Bragança House

Portugal History: The Bragança House

Europe

John IV (1640–56), founder of the Bragança dynasty, secured the independence of Portugal through treaties with France, the Netherlands and England, through the construction of the army and the navy and the expansion of the fortresses. The army reformed by F. Graf von Schomberg (actually Frierich Hermann von Schönberg, * 1615, † 1690) had to fight with English and French support until 1668 before Spain recognized Portugal’s independence in the Treaty of Lisbon. Peter II (1683–1706, regent since 1667) tried to build up factories with the help of a mercantilist economic policy and to make Portugal more independent of imports. The Methuen Treaty, which was concluded in 1703 for foreign policy considerations, revised this policy, it provided for the importation of English textiles in exchange for Portuguese wine to England.

The reign of John V (1706–50) is considered to be one of the most brilliant in Portuguese history. The huge amounts of gold flowing in from Brazil allowed an elaborate independence and neutrality policy, the promotion of monarchical absolutism, and the promotion of art, literature and science. However, the excess of money also destroyed the beginnings of establishing independent commercial production. With the appointment of the Marquis of Pombal as First Minister, enlightened absolutism in Portugal reached its climax during the reign of Joseph I (1750–77). Pombal restricted the power of the church, expelled the Jesuits from Brazil and Portugal, ensured the establishment of modern training courses in schools and universities, rebuilt Lisbon, which was destroyed by an earthquake in 1755, and tried to give the economy a healthy independence through trading and production companies procure. Despite the desired policy of neutrality, Portugal was drawn into the Seven Years War. However, an army modernized according to the Prussian model was able to repel the Spanish invasion in 1762. After Queen Mary I (1777-1816) came to power, Pombal was sent into exile. In 1792 Johann VI took over . (1816–26) reigned for his mentally ill mother.

According to Youremailverifier, Portugal remained in alliance with Great Britain during the French Revolution and Napoleonic rule. After refusing to join the continental blockade, a French army occupied Portugal in October 1807; Under the protection of the British fleet, the Portuguese court fled to Brazil and stayed there when a British army liberated Portugal in 1811. Johann did not return to Europe until after the revolution of 1820. The heir to the throne Dom Pedro (later Emperor Peter I of Brazil) remained as regent in the Kingdom of Brazil, which had had equal rights since 1815, and proclaimed independence there in September 1822.

On October 1, 1822, Johann VI swore . to the constitution drawn up by the extraordinary Cortes. It guaranteed civil liberties and granted the Cortes extensive rights vis-à-vis the king. When John’s death in 1826, his eldest son, Peter I of Brazil, ceded the right of inheritance to his eldest daughter Maria II da Glória and issued a new, less democratic constitution that granted the king more extensive rights vis-à-vis the bicameral parliament and, after interruptions, Remained in force from 1842–1910. Under pressure from the Holy Alliance he had to appoint his younger brother Dom Miguel as regent in 1827, who was at the head of a reactionary counter-revolution in 1828 Michael I proclaimed king. In 1831 Peter renounced the Brazilian throne. In 1834 he defeated Michael with British support. During the reign of Maria II da Glória (1826 / 34–53) constant internal turmoil did not allow the country to calm down. Cartists (after the constitution of 1826) and Setembrists (after the constitution of 1822) fought for power. From 1833–35 the clerical property was secularized, but not used to create a rural middle class, but sold to the aristocracy and the wealthy bourgeoisie as large estates for the benefit of the state coffers. The suppression of the popular uprising of 1846/47 with the support of Great Britain and Spain and the military revolt of 1851 ushered in the time of “regeneration”. The three parties, the Conservative Regeneration Party, the Historical Party and the Progressive Party, took turns in government. Under Peter V. (1853–61), Ludwig I (1861–89) and Charles I (1889–1908) the road and rail network was expanded. In 1867 the civil code came into force. introduced civil marriage and abolished majorates. Colonial ownership in Africa was expanded. Economically, however, Portugal remained a backward agricultural country and even had to declare national bankruptcy in 1892.

Republicans and socialists were able to organize with few restrictions from the 1870s onwards. With the rise of the Republicans, the traditional parties fell apart. On February 1, 1908, the king and the heir to the throne were assassinated. The second son of Charles I, Emanuel II (1908-10), was dethroned by the proclamation of the republic on October 5, 1910; J. T. Fernandes Braga became the first president. On June 11, 1911, the Cortes formally announced the abolition of the monarchy.

Portugal History - The Bragança House