Rich traditions in the sphere of culture, science and education are closely connected with the values of European culture. In 1364 a university was founded in Krakow, and in 1474 the first printing house was opened there, and in 1748 the Public Library in Warsaw. Between 1773 and 1775, the first Ministry of Education in Europe was created. Warsaw University was founded in 1816, and the Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow was founded in 1872. In the 20th century 5 Polish citizens became Nobel Prize winners: Maria Skłodowska-Curie (in 1903 and 1911); Henryk Sienkiewicz (1905); Vladislav Reymont (1924); Cheslav Miloš (1980); Wiesława Szymborska (1996).
Scientific research in Poland is carried out at the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), founded in 1952, at higher educational institutions and branch institutes. Issues of scientific and scientific-technical policy are within the competence of the State Committee for Scientific Research. In 2000, there were 82 scientific institutions in the PAN, incl. 58 institutes, they employed approx. 4 thousand researchers, incl. 788 professors, i.e. 9% of all scientific researchers in the country. PAN unites 350 Polish and 200 foreign full members. The most famous international research centers of the PAN are: Center for Forced Magnetic Fields, Mathematical Center. S.Banakha, Polish-French Center for Biotechnology, etc.
According to andyeducation, most scientists work in universities. In the 2001/02 academic year, 362 universities, incl. in 248 non-state, 81,142 teachers worked, of which almost 18 thousand professors. State universities are still the leading educational and scientific centers in the country. The most famous universities are Warsaw, Jagiellonian (in Krakow), Wroclaw, Lublin, Poznan. A high level of education is provided by: the Higher Trade School and the Main Agricultural School in Warsaw, as well as polytechnic institutes in Warsaw, Gliwice, Czestochowa, etc.
In 1999, the reform of the education system began. Compulsory 6-year primary education has been introduced. The next stage of education is 4 years at the gymnasium, and then 4 years at the lyceum. Another stage is studying at a university for 4-5 years (6 years for physicians). The total training cycle is at least 18 years. In 1999, 11% of Poland’s population aged 25 and over had higher education. In 2000, in the system of secondary education, the number of students exceeded the level of 1990 by 77%. in non-state institutions, 509,000. Consequently, 43.6% of young people aged 19-24 study at universities.
The first Polish-language writer is Mikołaj Rey (16th century). Jan Kochanowski is recognized as the greatest poet of the Polish Renaissance. In the 19th and 20th centuries outstanding Polish writers and poets were Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Slowacki, Kamil Norwid, Bolesław Prus, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Władysław Reymont, Stefan Zeromski, Leon Kruczkowski, Yaroslav Iwaszkiewicz, Julian Tuwim, Władysław Broniewski, Anthony Slonimski, Jerzy Putrament, Władysław Maheek, Stanisław Lem, Kazimir Brandys, Cheslav Milosz, Wieslaw Szymborska and others.
The first surviving paintings by Polish artists date back to the 11th century. In Poland and abroad, mainly masters of the 19th and 20th centuries are known. — Jan Matejko, Jerzy Kossak, Jan Malczewski, Stanisław Wyspianski, Ksaver Dunikowski and others. After the adoption of Christianity, many churches appeared in the country in the Romanesque and Gothic styles, and then in the Baroque style. In the 17th and 18th centuries wooden sculpture began to be widely used to decorate palaces. An example of the classical style of architecture is the famous Lazienki palace and park complex in Warsaw. In the 19th century architecture acquired a special splendor and scale. For the 20th century characteristically functional construction associated with the construction of public buildings and residential buildings.
Poland has given the world a galaxy of outstanding composers and performers. Among them are Frederic Chopin, Stanislav Moniuszko, Henryk Wieniawski, Ignacy Paderewski, Krzysztof Penderecki, Witold Lutoslawski and others. There are 10 opera houses in the country, many chamber orchestras and ensembles. The first drama theater was founded in 1765 at the royal court. The first Polish opera, The Changed Philosopher, was staged in 1771. In the 20th century. The leading Polish theaters were the People’s Theatre, the Bolshoi Theatre, the Polski Theater in Warsaw, the Stary Theater in Krakow, and others. Prominent theater directors are Leon Schiller, Kazimierz Deimek, Adam Khanuszkiewicz and others.
General information about Poland
The official name is the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska, Republic of Poland). It is located in Central Europe in the basin of the Vistula and Odra rivers between the Baltic Sea in the north, the Carpathians and Sudetes in the south. Area 312,685 km2, incl. land area, including inland waters and rivers, 311,904 km2, as well as the area of marine inland waters, 781 km2. The population is 38.230 million people. (2002). The official language is Polish. The capital is Warsaw (1609.8 thousand people, 2001). Public holidays: Anniversary of the adoption of the Constitution on May 3, National Independence Day on November 11. The monetary unit is the zloty (equal to 100 grosz).
Poland is one of the founding members of the UN, a member of NATO (since 1999), OECD (since 1996), EFTA (since 1993), Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEAST) (since 1991), WTO (since 1995), IMF (since 1986), EBRD (since 1991), EU (since 2004).